3D E-SCAN and data-logger 3D
New "distributed" technology validates the 3D approach.
How data-loggers work.   Comparison to 3D E-SCAN.

Understanding DC IP/resistivity surveys
Review of the field data sets provided by
six commercial IP/resistivity array setups.

A slide show explains the importance of
acquiring a True 3D field data set

Display a one-image preview.

Peak 3D
click here

3D imagery  click here  
  E-SCAN® 3D earth geo-electric mapping 198-151212-01
3D DC IP & resistivity earth mapping for geoscience and engineering
Easiest to view on a large screen browser - not sized for smartphones.

© 1976-2015 Premier Geophysics Inc.       ver 24Aug2015       E-SCAN is a registered trademark of
            Premier Geophysics Inc. used under licence by Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd.
The text may identify issues that are thought to be important for maintaining a practical working perspective vis-a-vis the subject being discussed.
Model example comparing 3D E-SCAN's true 3D raw field data set to that of a conventional pole-dipole DC resistivity survey.
The model site has been complicated by adding some topographic issues, and a large airport facility over the buried target bodies.
          See the slideshow above for full context and explanation. Allow the slides to advance automatically, or step through the slides at your own pace by using the advance/pause controls that are made visible by placing your mouse cursor within the screen display.
Example: Securing uninterrupted true 3D data set across the vertical cliff area in this project resulted in no additional costs to the client.
Additional time requirements: zero.
Additional risk to client: zero.
Special planning/equipment: none.
example comment: You might think that you can simply double the size of the measurement dipole to get twice the vertical penetration (before the signal level again becomes unmanageable),- but the lateral setup distance needed by this doubled-everywhere array may far exceed the available space. This bigger array may encounter a steep-terrain boundary limitation, or your survey may have to go past the legal boundary of your property, perhaps requiring you to negotiate the rights to do so.
See the main page item on Rough Terrain.
Secondary concern: a doubled dipole length also diminishes lateral resolution... Do you have the lateral space required for very long surface array layouts?.

3D E-SCAN's NEW WEBSITE - Last sync: ver 560 on August 24 2015

Content creation is about 85% complete, with 80% uploaded here in this version.

Note that some functions are most easily readable using FIREFOX as your browser,
on a laptop or other large screen.

Most smartphone and other small-screen devices will not be suitable for the detailed
content and large supporting files that need to be downloaded.
Internet Explorer 6 is not supported. Internet Explorer version 8 does not work for
2- and 3-column text, and for many navigation issues - example: not returning you
to where you were when you clicked on something. Google Chrome apparently has issues.

We're working on it, but please help yourself by loading and using FIREFOX if you can.

If you use Adobe Reader Version 9 or better (free from Adobe), you may be able to rotate some 3D PDF views, - provided your computer's video chipset is new and powerful enough. A low performance chipset may advance rotation in a jerky manner with lots of wireframe artefacts between images, or it may not work at all.
Most PDF files you might download will not be 3D images,- just high-resolution sheets that you can review, print out, save or send.
This is a real 3D E-SCAN discovery case history...
see details by clicking on GOLD in the home page
menu, then select CASE EXAMPLE #4.
Typically, complete sets of 3D views of results are available within 2-3 weeks, by e-mail, for review. The fully formatted, bound report takes longer.
In an emergency, we can get you 3D images within 72 hours of field data acquisition.
In cases of dense bush, some simple pre-cut lines may be needed to support crew access to electrode stations. Most would be pretty minimal cuts,- just enough to slip
through. These access cuts need not be straight lines or chained.
To get away from an image, move the mouse off to any side.

To see the complete 3D image sequences: "click here" at left.

To see the complete 3D image sequences: "click here" at right.
                For further explanation and illustrations see the "TECHNICAL BACKUP" link.

True 3D geo-electric models
      "True 3D" refers to a comprehensively hard-data-supported 3D inversion model, whose objectivity is secured provision of a genuinely 3D raw data set, one that is rigidly defined as (1) dense, (2) uniformly distributed, (3) all-directional, (4) consistently over-deep measured data, with inherent characteristics sufficient for the (5) objective recognition and correction (or elimination) of questionable data.

      Using the complete set of appropriately positioned and oriented raw data values, the True 3D process can actively define and constrain every part of the entire 3D earth model, including "uninteresting" background areas. Virtually no earth model aspect is left to the infill interpolation, extrapolation, smoothing or other programmed estimations that most inversion algorithms must employ to ensure a 3D model result through areas represented by sparse or incomplete raw data.
      It follows that, for an all-encompassing (True 3D data-based) survey, there can be no possibility of an initial conceptual error in survey parameterization (pre-survey choice of survey line orientation, depth estimate, model type estimate) because no such pre-survey guesswork is required. No pre-survey parameter selection is ever needed... 3D E-SCAN samples all parameters, every time.

      Non "True 3D", by this definition, would be those "3D-looking" earth models that:

    a) are directly 3D-inverted by a 3D algorithm using non-3D raw data, e.g. sparse, single- or non-directional in orientation, or having insufficiently deep raw data, at least one of which characteristics results from any line-type DC resistivity survey array and almost all EM methods,    or

    b) are cobbled together from 1D profiles or 2D sections, arithmetically merged or graphically stitched, based on the questionable assumption that an objective 3D model can be obtained from some number of adjacent 2D sections or 1D stacks.